WHY THERE IS DRUG ADDICTION
WHY THERE IS DRUG ADDICTION
Drug addiction , may I hasten to submit, runs in the family, that’s why. Let me explain. Children are vulnerable physically whenever weather changes and as a consequence colds, coughs and fever manifest. Parents, having been bombarded with medicinal intervention through media almost instinctively would prescribe and require medication as remedy. This is a regular fare in a family. Something is felt and there is discomfort, drugs are oftentimes the instant solution. Its there on television, on radio and on giant billboards. Something amiss, there is a corresponding drug to address it.
As one grows up, problems not only physical but psychological are ingested and felt. The normal reaction again is to reach out for some medication. If it is something that ails, bordering on something emotional, the immediate response is to look for some medicinal intervention. That is where drugs become common place , the usual route, a regular cornerstone whence a person finds comfort and remedy. He is inured, as a matter of fact trained early on, to take drugs to solve a problem.
This is the psychological state on which every person finds himself in a bind. If one is emotionally disturbed there are several pills, even vitamins that could respond squarely if not psychologically too. But the most effective and here is where illegal drugs come, are those which has a relaxing effect on the person. And there are lots of preparation. And here is a list of 10 of the most abused drugs, if illegally or illicitly taken may induce a person towards addiction and eventually to behavioural excesses or crime.
HEROIN: it is an opiate processed directly from the extracts of the opium poppy. It was originally created to help cure people of addition to morphine. Upon crossing the blood-brain barrier, which occurs soon after introduction of the drug into the bloodstream, heroin is converted into morphine, which mimics the action of endorphins, creating a sense of well-being; the characteristic euphoria has been described as an “orgasm” centred in the gut. One of the most common methods of heroin use is via intravenous injection.
COCAINE: It is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. It is both a stimulant of the central nerbous system and an appetite suppressant, giving rise to what has been described as a euphoric sense of happiness and increased energy. It is most often used recreationally for this effect. Cocaine is a potent central nervous system stimulant. Its effects can last from 20 minutes to several hours, depending upon the dosage of cocaine taken, purity and method of administration. The initial signs of stimulation are hyperactivity, restlessness, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate and euphoria. The euphoria is sometimes followed by feelings of discomfort and depression and a craving to experience the drug again. Sexual interest and pleasure can be amplified. Side effects can include twitching, paranoia and impotence, which usually increases with frequent usage.
METHAMPHETAMINE or “shabu”: also, popularly shortened to meth or ice, is a psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug. Methanmphetamine enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. Since it stimulates the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing euphoria and excitement, it is prone to abuse and addiction. Users may become obsessed or perform repetitive tasks such as cleaning, hand-washing, or assembling and disassembling objects. With drawal is characterized by excessive sleeping, eating and depression-like symptoms, often accompanied by anxiety and drug craving.
CRACK COCAINE: It is often nicknamed “crack” and is believed to have been created and made popular during the early 1980s. Because of the dangers for manufacturers of using ether to produce pure freebase cocaine, producers began to omit the step of removing the freebase precipitate from the ammonia mixture. Typically, filtration processes are also omitted. Baking soda is now most often used as a base rather than ammonia for reasons of lowered odor or toxicity; however, any weak base can be used to make crack cocaine. When commonly “cooked” the riatio is 1:1 to 2:3 parts cocaine/bicarbonate.
LSD: It is lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD, LSD-25, or acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drugs of the tryptamine family. Arguably the most regarded of all psychedelics, it is considered mainly as a recreational drug, an entheogen and a tool in use to supplement various types of exercises for transcendence including in medication, psychonautics and illegal psychedelic psychotherapy whether self administered or not. LSD’s psychological effects (colloquially called a “trip”) vary greatly from person to person, depending on factors such as previous experiences, state of mind and environment, as well as dose strength. They also varay from one trip to another, and even as time passes during a single trip. And LSD trip can have long term psychoemotional effects; some users cite the LSD experience as causing significant changes in their personality and life perspective. Widely different effects emerge based on what Leary called set and setting: the “set” being the general mindset of the user, and the “setting” being the physical and social environment in which the drug’s effects are experienced.
ECSTACY: It is a semisynthetic psychedelic entactogen of the phenethylamine family that is much less visual with more stimulant like effects than most all other common “trip” producing psychedelics. It is considered mainly a recreational drug that is often used with sex and associated with club drugs, as an enthogen, and a tool in use to supplement various types of practices for transcendence including in mediation, psychonautics and illicit psychedelic psychotherapy whether self administered or not. The primary effects of Ecstacy or MDMA include an increased awareness of the senses, feeling of mental clarity and an increased appreciation of music and movement. Tactile sensations are enchanced for some users, making physical contact with others more pleasurable. Other side effects, such as jaw clenching and elevated pulse are common.
OPIUM: it is a resinous narcotic formed from the latex released by lacerating )or “scoring”) the immature seed pods of opium poppies (papaver somniferum). It contains up to 16% morphine, an opiate alkaloid, which is most frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade. Opium has gradually been superseded by a variety of purified, semi-synthetic, and synthetic opioids with progressively stronger effect, and by other general anethesia. This process began in 1817, when Friendrich Wilhelm Adam Sertumer reported the isolation of pure morphine from opium after at least thirteen years of research and a nearly disastrous trial on himself and three boys.
MARIJUANA: Cannabis, know as marijuana in its herbal form, is a psychoactive product of the plan cannabis satiba. Humans have been consuming cannabis since prehistory, although in the 20th century there was a rise in its use for recreational, religious or spiritual and medicinal purposes. It is estimated that about four percent of the world’s adult population use cannabis annually. It has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed, usually by smoking or ingestion. The minimum avout of THC required to have a perceptible psychoactive effect is about 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight. The state of intoxication due to cannabis conscumption is colloquially known as a “high.”; it is the state where mental and physical facilities are noticeably altered due to the consumption of cannabis. Each user experiences a different high, and the nature of it may vary upon factors such as potency, dose, chemical composition, method of consumption and set and setting.
PSILOCYBIN MUSHROOMS: it is also called psilocybian mushrooms. These are fungi that contain the psychedelic substances psilocybin and psilocin, and occasionally other psychoactive tryptamines. There are multiple collegial terms for psilocybin mushrooms, the most common being magic mushrooms or ‘shrooms. When psilocybin is ingested, it is broken down to produce psilocin, which is responsible for the hallucinogenic effects. The intoxicating effects psilocybin containing mushrooms typically last anywhere from 3 to 7 hours depending on dosage, preparation, method and personal metabolism. The experience is typically inwardly oriented, with strong visiual auditory components. Visions and revelations may be experienced, and the effect can range from exhilarating to distressing. There can be also a total absence of effects, even with large doses.
PCP: it is phencyclidine, a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neutrotoxic effects. It is commonly known as Angel Dust, but is also known as Wet, Ozone, Hanna H, Hog, Manitoba, Shlimbo and Embalming Fluid, among other names. Although the primary psychoactive effects of the drug only last hours, total elimination from the body is prolonged, typically extending over weeks. PCP is consumed in a recreational manner by drug users, mainly the United States, where the demand is met by illegal production. It comes in both powder and liquid forms (PSP base dissolved most often in ether), but typically it is sprayed onto leafy material such as marijuana, mint, oregano, parsley or Ginger Leaves, and smoked. PCP has potent effects on the nervous system altering perceptual functions (hallucinations, delusional ideas, delirium or confused thinking), motor functions (unsteady gait, loss of coordination and disrupted eye movement or nystagmus) and autonomic nervous system regulation (rapid heart rate, altered temperature regulation.) The drug has been known to alter mood states in an unpredictable fashion causing some individuals to become detached and others to become animated.
These are the prevalent drugs obtained which has been the direct cause of addiction. In the penitentiary, especially in the Philippine setting, while there were occasions when drugs like marijuana and shabu are intercepted and if smuggled, consumed, there is a lowly plant which is innocently introduced but has potent hallucinogenic effect upon those who would ingest it. This is one concoction which has poisoned, affected and manipulated naïve or the newly recruited prison officers. It is locally called TALAMPUNAY, the scientific name is Datura Metel Linn or Datura Fastuosa Linn. Or Datura Alba Nees. In English, it is also known as Angel’s trumpet. It has been known in every province. In the visayas, it is known as Kachibong and Taubibong. It has the following properties like tropanic alkaloids in varying concentrations; mostly parasympatholytic. The common side effects are tachycardia (fast heart beat), slight increase in blood pressure, dryness of the mouth and eyes, sedation. Its early symptoms of poisoning are dilation of the pupil, drowsiness, general weakness, with varying degrees of hallucinations. At toxic levels, tropanic alkaloids can cause hallucinations, delirium, mental confusion, coma and death. With medium doses, recovery can occur in 12 to 24 hours, however, with loss of memory and confusion that may last for days.
When a prison personnel or a visitor would be offered any drink, say coffee, and if it is laced with talampunay, chances are the person is hooked already. This deadly concoction is circulating in the prison camp and it is undetected, not even considered illegal, consumed by prisoners (because in small doses it has the effect of booze or liquor) and used mainly to lure those whom the prisoners wanted to cast a spell on.
Drug addiction in the free community has been said earlier runs in the family, but in the penal setting, where vulnerabilities are high, it runs more on gullibility.